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John B. Goodenough-one of Nobel Prize Winner 2019

Time : 2019.10.25



97 years old,John B. Goodenough is known as the father of lithium batteries around the world.
Prof.Kehua Dai at the Northeastern University said: "The battery materials we use today were all invented in the 1980s. Without the key findings of Goodenough, lithium batteries may explode at any time."
 
"I am very happy that I lived long enough!" said 97-year-old American solid physicist John B. Goodenough when he was told that he was the oldest Nobel laureate to date. He said that he will work for another five years and retired at the age of 102!
 
On October 9th local time, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that they would award the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino in recognition of them.In recognition of their contributions in the field of lithium-ion batteries.
 
Among the most common lithium batteries currently, the positive electrode is a lithium cobaltate material and the negative electrode is a carbon material. This lightweight, rechargeable high energy density battery is now widely used in a variety of devices such as cell phones, notebook computers, and electric vehicles. It also stores a lot of energy from solar and wind energy, making it possible to have a fossil fuel-free society.
 
Before the invention of lithium batteries, the electrodes of the original rechargeable batteries contained solid matter, which decomposed when they chemically reacted with the electrolyte, thereby destroying the battery. The foundation of lithium-ion batteries was built during the oil crisis of the 1970s. British chemist Stanley Weitingham drafted a preliminary design scheme for lithium batteries, using titanium sulfide as the cathode material and lithium metal as the anode material to make a battery that can be charged and discharged.
 
However, the electrochemical reaction of the battery makes it easy to explode and gradually decays during repeated charge and discharge. Goodenough thinks he can design a lithium battery that is more efficient and has no such defects. Based on the idea of avoiding the use of manganese in the electrodes, Goodenough and the team began looking for alternative materials in metal oxides.



After four years of experimentation, Goodenough developed the lithium cathode lithium oxide, the cathode material of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, in 1980, which is milder than lithium metal and can increase battery storage. Two years later, the Goodenough laboratory discovered another more stable and cheaper material, Lithium manganese oxide.
 
Based on the study of Goodenough, Japanese chemist Yoshino Akira developed the first commercially available lithium-ion battery original in 1985 using lithium cobalt oxide cathode and carbon nanotubes. The function of this battery is not based on any harmful chemical reactions, but rather allows lithium ions to flow back and forth between the electrodes, which results in longer battery life.
 
In 1997, Goodenough and the team developed another more stable and safe cathode material lithium iron phosphate, which is currently used in electric vehicles, electric buses, electric ships, large-scale energy storage, communication base stations, data centers, etc. Mainstream material.
 
He is working on a "super battery" that really rivals electric and internal combustion engines, and hopes that it can economically store wind and solar energy. His research focuses on one of the most difficult issues in battery science: how to make battery anodes with pure lithium or sodium.



In February 2017, Goodenough announced a new generation of battery technology: a new solid-state battery with a three-fold higher energy density and a higher safety factor. He said he and the research team are preparing to patent the new solid-state battery and plan to work with battery manufacturers to develop and test new batteries for electric vehicles and energy storage devices.




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